What are Catechisms? (40 articles)
- What are Catechisms? (1 of 40)
- What do Catechisms Teach? (2 of 40)
- What are the Ten Commandments? (3 of 40)
- Why Are The Ten Commandments Numbered Differently? (4 of 40)
- What is the First Commandment? (5 of 40)
- What is the Second Commandment? (6 of 40)
- What is the Third Commandment? (7 of 40)
- What is the Fourth Commandment? (8 of 40)
- What is the Fifth Commandment? (9 of 40)
- What is the Sixth Commandment? (10 of 40)
- What is the Seventh Commandment? (11 of 40)
- What is the Eighth Commandment? (12 of 40)
- What is the Ninth Commandment? (13 of 40)
- What is the Tenth Commandment? (14 of 40)
- Are People Able to Keep the Ten Commandments? (15 of 40)
- How are Catechisms Organized? (16 of 40)
- Who is God? (17 of 40)
- What is the Trinity? (18 of 40)
- Who is Jesus Christ? (19 of 40)
- Who is the Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost)? (20 of 40)
- What is Creation? (21 of 40)
- What are Angels? (22 of 40)
- Who is Man? (23 of 40)
- What is Sin? (24 of 40)
- What are the Effects of Sin? (25 of 40)
- What is the Bible? (26 of 40)
- What Covenants did God make with People? (27 of 40)
- What is Faith? (28 of 40)
- What is Repentance? (29 of 40)
- What is Grace? (30 of 40)
- What is Redemption? (31 of 40)
- What is Righteousness? (32 of 40)
- What are Justification, Adoption and Sanctification? (33 of 40)
- Why did Jesus Suffer and Die? (34 of 40)
- What was Jesus’ Resurrection? (35 of 40)
- What is the Forgiveness of Sin? (36 of 40)
- What is the Church? (37 of 40)
- What is the Second Coming? (38 of 40)
- What is the Resurrection of Believers? (39 of 40)
- What is the Judgement of non-Christians? (40 of 40)
What do you believe of Jesus Christ?1
I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.
Why is Jesus Christ true God?2
Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God the Father.
What do we mean when we say that Jesus is the only Son of God?3
We mean that Jesus is the only perfect image of the Father, and shows us the nature of God.
Why do you call him the only Son of God, seeing that God designs to bestow this appellation upon us all?4
That we are the sons of God we have not from nature, but from adoption and grace only, in other words, because God puts us in that place (John 1:1), but the Lord Jesus who was begotten of the substance of the Father, and is of one essence with the Father (Ephesians 1:3) is by the best title called the only Son of God, because he alone is his Son by nature (Hebrews 1:1-6).
Was Jesus Christ always God?5
Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.
Is Jesus Christ more than one person?6
No, Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.
How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?7
In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man.
What two natures, therefore, are united in the one person of Jesus Christ?8
The divine and the human natures are united in Jesus Christ. This personal union began when He became man (incarnation) and continues forever (John 1:14; 1 Timothy 3:16; Colossians 2:9; Isaiah 9:6; Matthew 28:18; Matthew 28:20; Acts 3:15; 1 John 1:7; Acts 20:28).
Why must he at the same time be true God?9
He must be true God so that by the power of his divine nature (Isaiah 9:6) he might bear in his human nature the burden of God’s wrath (Deuteronomy 4:24; Nahum 1:6; Psalm 130:3), and might obtain for us and restore to us righteousness and life (Isaiah 53:5, 11; John 3:16; 2 Corinthians 5:21).
How do you know that Jesus Christ is true God?10
Because the Scriptures clearly call Him God, teaching the following:
- Jesus has divine names (John 20:28; Romans 9:5; 1 John 5:20). These names are not mere honorary titles but tell exactly who Jesus is, and they can be true only of God.
- Jesus possesses divine attributes (qualities or characteristics). He is
- Eternal (without beginning and without end) (John 1:1-2);
- Unchangeable (Hebrews 13:8);
- Almighty (omnipotent) (Matthew 28:18);
- All-knowing (omniscient) (John 21:17);
- Present everywhere (omnipresent) (Matthew 28:20).
- Jesus does divine works (which only God can do).
- He forgives (Matthew 9:6);
- He created (John 1:3);
- He will judge (John 5:27);
- He preserve. (Hebrews 1:3).
- Bible narratives: At the wedding feast in Cana, Jesus revealed His glory by turning water into wine (John 2:1-11). He rebuked the storm (Luke 8:22-25). He healed the paralytic (Matt. 9:1-8). He called Lazarus back to life (John 11:38-44). He rose from the dead (Matthew 28:6-7).
- Jesus receives divine honor and glory (John 5:22-23; Hebrews 1:6; Philippians 2:10; Revelation 5:12-13).
Why must he be a true and righteous man?11
He must be a true man because the justice of God requires that the same human nature which has sinned should pay for sin (Romans 5:12, 15; 1 Corinthians 15:21; Hebrews 2:14-16). He must be a righteous man because one who himself is a sinner cannot pay for others (Hebrews 7:26- 27; 1 Peter 3:18).
How do you know that Jesus Christ is also true man?12
Because the Scriptures
- Clearly call Him man (1 Timothy 2:5);
- Say that He has a human body and soul (Luke 24:39; Matthew 26:38);
- Speak of His human, but sinless, feelings and actions (Matthew 4:2; John 11:35; John 19:28; Hebrews 4:14-16).
Why was it necessary for our Savior to be true man?13
Christ had to be true man in order to
- Act in our place under the Law and fulfill it for us (active obedience) (Galatians 4:4-5; Romans 5:19);
- Be able to suffer and die for our guilt because we failed to keep the Law (passive obedience) (Colossians 1:22; Hebrews 2:14).
Why is Jesus Christ true man?14
Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary and has a body and soul like ours.
Was Jesus Christ always man?15
Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His Incarnation.
What do you confess when you say: He was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary?16
The eternal Son of God, who is and remains true and eternal God (John 1:1; 10:30-36; Romans 1:3; 9:5; Colossians 1:15-17; 1 John 5:20), took upon himself true human nature from the flesh and blood of the virgin Mary (Matthew 1:18-23; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; Hebrews 2:14), through the working of the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:35). Thus he is also the true seed of David (2 Samuel 7:12-16; Psalm 132:11; Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:32; Romans 1:3), and like his brothers in every respect (Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17), yet without sin (Hebrews 4:15; 7:26-27).
But why was that affected by the Holy Spirit, and not by the common and usual form of generation?17
As the seed of man is entirely corrupt, it was necessary that the operation of the Holy Spirit should interfere in the generation of the Son of God, that he might not be affected by this contagion, but endued with the most perfect purity.
Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of our first parents?18
The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.
Wherein did Christ’s humiliation consist?19
Christ’s humiliation consisted in His being born, and that in a low condition, made under the law, undergoing the miseries of this life, the wrath of God, and the cursed death of the cross, in being buried, and continuing under the power of death for a time (Luke 2:7; Galatians 4:4; Isaiah 53:3; Luke 22:44; Matthew 27:46; Philippians 2:8; Matthew 12:40; Mark 15:45-46).
Why did he take our human nature?20
The divine Son became human, so that in him human beings might be adopted as children of God, and be made heirs of God’s kingdom.
What benefit do you receive from the holy conception and birth of Christ?21
He is our Mediator (1 Timothy 2:5, 6; Hebrews 9:13-15), and with his innocence and perfect holiness covers, in the sight of God, my sin, in which I was conceived and born (Romans 8:3, 4; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Peter 1:18-19).
Was it of consequence then that he should assume our nature?22
Very much so; because it was necessary that the disobedience committed by man against God should be expiated also in human nature. Nor could he in any other way be our Mediator to make reconciliation between God and man (Romans 3:24; 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 4:15; 5:7).
Titles and Offices
Why is He named Jesus?23
The name Jesus means “the Lord saves.” Jesus is His personal name (Matthew 1:21; John 4:42; Acts 4:12)
What is meant by the Messiah?24
The Messiah is one sent by God to free us from the power of sin, so that with the help of God we may live in harmony with God, within ourselves, with our neighbors, and with all creation.
In what sense do you understand him to be “our Lord?”25
Inasmuch as he was appointed by the Father to have us under his power, to administer the kingdom of God in heaven and on earth, and to be the head of angels and good men.
For what threefold office was Christ anointed?26
Christ was anointed to be our Prophet, Priest, and King.
- As Prophet, Christ
- Preached personally during His life on earth, validating His word with miracles, especially His own resurrection (Deuteronomy 18:15; Matthew 17:5; Mark 1:38; John 1:17-18; John 6:68);
- Through the preached Gospel today still proclaims Himself to be the Son of God and Redeemer of the world (Mark 16:15; Luke 10:16; 2 Corinthians 5:20).
- As Priest, Christ
- Fulfilled the Law perfectly in our stead (active obedience) (Galatians 4:4-5);
- Sacrificed Himself for our sins (passive obedience) (1 Corinthians 15:3; Hebrews 7:26-27; 1 John 2:2);
- Still pleads for us with His heavenly Father (intercession) (1 John 2:1).
- As King, Christ
- Rules with His almighty power over all creation (the kingdom of power-all creatures) (Matthew 28:18);
- Governs and protects especially His church (the kingdom of grace-the church on earth) (John 18:36-37);
- Finally leads His church to kingdom of glory – the church in heaven) (2 Timothy 4:18).
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 62.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 63.
- Episcopal Catechism (1789), Question 29.
- Geneva Catachism (1545), Question 46.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 67.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 66.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 65.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 121.
- Heidelberg Catechism (1563), Question 17.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 119.
- Heidelberg Catechism (1563), Question 16.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 120.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 122.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 64.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 68.
- Heidelberg Catechism (1563), Question 35.
- Geneva Catachism (1545), Question 53.
- Baltimore Larger Catechism (1885), Question 72.
- Baptist Catechism (1677), Question 31.
- Episcopal Catechism (1789), Question 32.
- Heidelberg Catechism (1563), Question 36.
- Geneva Catachism (1545), Question 51.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 115.
- Episcopal Catechism (1789), Question 27.
- Geneva Catachism (1545), Question 48.
- Luther’s Small Catechism (1529), Question 125.